An Analysis on Cyclic Variations that Indicate a Catastrophic Famine Event in East Africa in 2028-2035


Bringing life to the Drylands: Mapathons For Disaster Preparedness and Response

Authors: Morris Makabe & Naomi Ng’ang’a

Wajir county is one of the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (ASAL) of Kenya located in the North Eastern region of Kenya. The County experiences frequent drought episodes especially from June to September, which impact negatively livestock and crop farming, education, nutrition, and access to water and pasture. On the other hand, the county also experiences flash floods which damage infrastructure and destroys life. The frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events has been on the rise in the recent past disrupting the livelihood of the communities within the ASAL areas and increasing community vulnerability to subsequent disasters. For instance, since 2019, Kenya is among the countries in the greater horn of Africa that has experienced five consecutive failed rain seasons. According to World meteorological organization (WMO), the drought is the longest in 40 years1 disproportionally affecting the ASAL populations.


These threats are expected to intensify because of climate change. However, effective use of data in the development of early warning systems has the potential to reduce the negative impacts of disasters. In Wajir county, efforts are ongoing to strengthen county capacity in disaster preparedness, mitigation, and response. In one of the meetings, with the Wajir county stakeholders that aimed to strengthen their capacity in early disaster preparedness, lack of adequate data was outlined as a major shortcoming and posed a special request to be facilitated in acquiring granular data to support the development of disaster risk management (DRM) plans.

With funding from the HOTOSM-ESA hub, the Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS) commenced a project in June 2022 that makes use of open map data to understand community vulnerability and adaptive capacities.

To officially launch the project, all the stakeholders, including the HOTOSM ESA hub, KRCS, Wajir County Government officials, and Community representatives, met during the inception meeting in July 2022 to expound the project aims and objectives. The stakeholders were practically shown through demonstrations and field engagements the mapping process, its short-term and long-term objectives, and the importance of the project to the community and humanitarian partners, especially in terms of disaster preparedness and response.


In September 2022, KRCS through its International Center for Humanitarian Affairs (ICHA) ( successfully conducted the first-ever mapathon2 in Wajir county from the 16th to 18th of September 2022 focusing on two wards within the Wajir West sub-county: Ganyure Wagalla and Hadado Athbohol. The three-day mapping event attracted a diverse group of people including officials from Wajir County, geospatial experts, volunteers, and the local community who used OpenStreetMap (OSM), an open-source mapping platform, to create detailed maps of the area. Close to 6,878 building footprints were added to OSM during the event. Participants also gained knowledge of mobile mapping techniques to add point features to OSM. Some of the features added through organic maps included health facilities, pharmacies, water points/ facilities, and financial and learning institutions.

Speaking during the Wajir Mapathon held on 16th September 2022, Abdullahi Mohammed, Wajir North former MCA aspirant and County official said, “I think the maps will help NGOs and governments to make decisions in future or currently… And for easy navigation during disasters.”

This mapathon served as a kick-start to a series of other mapathons aimed at mapping out the entire county gradually.

In October 2022, KRCS-ICHA conducted the second mapathon in Nairobi at Boma Hotel. The event attracted 80 participants drawn from diverse backgrounds and with different skills. There was presence from the OSM Kenya community, youth mappers from the Technical University of Kenya (TUK) chapter, representatives from organizations such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Somalia, university students, and volunteers eager to map vulnerable communities located in Wajir, Tana River and Busia county who are at risk of climate-related hazards. A total of 39,262 buildings were mapped and added to OSM.

Speaking to one of the volunteers, Mary Muthee, a geospatial science student from Technical University of Kenya was elated about her newly acquired knowledge on mapping “… the whole aspect of being a mapper and being able to make an impact in the society through my skill has been the most fulfilling experience and especially being given a chance to map vulnerable areas in a bid to improve early action and response mechanisms in the humanitarian sector through the mapathon”.

Besides this, ICHA also carried out a three-day training from 1st to 3rd November 2022 on the HOT Tasking manager at Wajir North sub-county and Habaswein town. The three-day training saw county staff, community members and volunteers capacity built on data collection using the Kobo-ODK platform and how to use the ID editor on the HOT Tasking manager to map.

So far, the project has added over 52,000 building footprints, 517 km of road, and over 300 features of interest on the open data- OSM platform. The open-access nature of the data creates opportunities for all kinds of organisations, government agencies and not-for-profits to design interventions addressing community vulnerability to disasters.

By involving local stakeholders and volunteers in the mapping process, KRCS-ICHA has been able to create awareness and understanding of the importance of geospatial data and how it can be used in disasters. We have also been able to create a local network of trained individuals who can respond quickly in the event of a disaster. Mapathons are an important tool for disaster preparedness, as they help to create accurate and up-to-date maps, build local capacity, and promote collaboration between different organizations.

The project intends to expand its mapping efforts to cover the entire county, capacity-build local stakeholders on the use of open map data for decision-making, and capacity-build communities on disaster risk reduction approaches.


World Meteorological Day-WMD 2023:
“The Future of Weather, Climate and Water across Generations”


Did you know: The World Meteorological Day is a day celebrated annually on March 23 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and its Member States. The day marks the establishment of the WMO in 1950 and is used to commemorate the role of meteorology and weather-related activities in people’s lives. The theme of World Meteorological Day changes each year and is chosen to raise awareness about a particular meteorological issue of global concern. The day provides an opportunity for meteorologists, governments, and other organizations to highlight the important work they do in promoting weather and climate services and improving the quality of life for people around the world.

The theme for this year’s World Meteorological Day is ” The Future of Weather, Climate and Water across Generations“.

The future of weather, climate, and water is of great concern across generations. The Earth’s climate is changing, largely due to human activities such as greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation. This is leading to a rise in average global temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent and intense extreme weather events.

One of the most significant impacts of climate change will be on water resources. As temperatures rise, glaciers and polar ice caps are melting, causing sea levels to rise and threatening coastal communities. At the same time, changes in precipitation patterns and increased evaporation due to higher temperatures are leading to more frequent and severe droughts in some regions. For example, in Kenya, we are witnessing a 5th failed rain season since October 2020.

To address these challenges, current and future generations must take action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase our use of renewable energy sources. This will help to slow down and eventually stop the Earth’s climate from changing. Additionally, we must work to develop innovative solutions for adapting to the impacts of climate change and developing more resilient water management systems.

In the future, it will be important for individuals, communities, and governments to work together to tackle the challenges of weather, climate, and water. This will require continued research and investment in new technologies and policies to help us understand and respond to these complex issues.

Future generations must be educated and informed about the impact of human activities on the environment and the importance of taking action to protect our planet. This will help to ensure that they have the tools and knowledge they need to build a sustainable future and address the challenges of weather, climate, and water.


Kenya Red Cross Society’s Early-Action seeds help farmers beat drought

By Denis Onyodi, Climate Centre, Kwale, Kenya

Man on maize farm

Farmers in Kenya’s southern region of Kwale county who had turned to logging and quarrying after a prolonged period of drought have been harvesting a huge variety of crops over the past few weeks thanks to an early-action distribution of specialized seeds by the Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS).

In a story from Kwale county late last month, Kenya’s Star newspaper noted that most drought-hit Kwale county residents have relied on food aid to survive: “Some were reported to have one meal a day with children and women suffering the most,” the paper’s correspondent Shaban Omar added. Citizen TV Kenya also reported last week on the KRCS project’s success.

The Kenya Drought Early Action Protocol Light Activation, supported by the British Red Cross and Dutch Red Cross, began last October with the distribution of three types of drought-tolerant and disease-resistant seeds; green grams, cowpeas and sorghum to 1,500 Kwale farmers.

Green grams
These seed types that replaced traditional but vulnerable maize were selected in consultation with the farmers and experts from the Department of Agriculture. Field surveys now show that the green grams were particularly successful in Taru village.

The project also supported the rehabilitation of a borehole that supplies water to 750 households in three villages. “I think this has been a very successful project,” said KRCS branch leader, Mohammed Mwaenzi. “Kwale county is currently faced with a serious drought situation, but in areas where we have handed out these crops, most of the farmers are doing well.” He added: “If we could support farmers with this type of drought-resistant seed during the short rains [in November and December], we would not talk about people needing food aid. They would still be in a drought situation, but they would get some food from these crops. This is the way to go.”

Project monitoring that included face-to-face community meetings has now established that 80 per cent of the beneficiary farmers had high yields from the crops. Coastal Kwale – although relatively small compared to its neighbouring counties to the north – incorporates a wide variety of micro-climates. Most of Kwale experienced some rain during the November–December 2022 short season.

No farmer got the full yield that was theoretically possible from the quantity of seed planted, given the patchy short rains, but the harvest of green grams especially was above the long-term average.


I.O.Me254 Monthly Newsletter – First Edition


High-Level Meeting on Ending Drought Emergencies (EDE)

Experts on Drought Risk Management, Dry-Land Related Climate Adaptation, and policy sector coordination conducted a high-level consultative meeting from the 18th to the 19th of January 2023. The meeting was officially opened by Hon. Rebeca Miano, MBS. Cabinet secretary, Ministry of East African Community, ASALs and Regional Development, and attended by Hon. Mohamed Elmi, Former Minister for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands, Raphael Nzomo, Chairman of NDMA Board of Directors, Mr. Idris Dokota, the Principal Secretary for ASALS and Regional Development, Hon. Geoffrey E. Kaituko, The Principal Secretary for Labor and Skills Development, Sen. Hon. Hassan Abdirahman, Deputy Secretary General-Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS), and Ms. Annette Msabeni among other stakeholders.

The stakeholders discussed, reviewed, and generated new ideas on the programmatic focus of the second phase of EDE. They also discussed ways of enhancing effective stakeholder-inclusive EDE coordination structures. Lastly, based on experiences nationally and at the global level, they also reviewed what could be amended and how higher impacts may be achieved from programs.

It was recognized that Kenya has made remarkable progress toward ending drought emergencies and has been a champion for drought resilience in the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) region, despite failing to meet the goal of ending drought emergencies by 2022.

It was recommended that the development of the EDE II stakeholder participation should be expanded and ensure the involvement of both levels of government, putting counties at the center of design and implementation.

Lastly, during group discussion, Zachary Misiani (Climate Officer at the International Center for Humanitarian Affairs(ICHA) explained the role of KRCS and by extension ICHA to create research and learning networks to support EDE strategic evidence and knowledge management. This Knowledge Management will focus on generating strategic evidence on the value for money for investing in EDE, including averted loss of life and livelihoods and economic loss and damage.


Women Social Entrepreneurship Institute program

The Women Social Entrepreneurship Institute (WSEI) is a program launched by the French Red Cross in partnership with the Kenya Red Cross Society’s Innovations Unit (I.O.Me 001). The project aims to empower youth and women in Mombasa with digital and social entrepreneurship skills to address unemployment issues in Kenya.


The program has had a series of Info-Sessions in January 2023 to disseminate and market the program to potential beneficiaries in Mombasa County. A total of 95 women applied for the program and 33 were selected for a pitch session. The pitch session was facilitated by Swahili Pot Hub Foundation to equip the selected women with good pitching skills.
The pitch session covered topics such as scripting a pitch, solving affordable problems, explaining the benefits of a solution to various potential buyers, identifying the target market and coming up with clear growth plans. The 33 women later faced a jury to pitch their ideas and products for selection into the second phase.

The Jury was comprised of staff from the Kenya International Chamber of Commerce, Kenya Private Sector Alliance, Swahilipot Hub Foundation, Kenya Red Cross, and French Red Cross. The pitches were graded based on dedication, entrepreneurial skills and potential impact.
A total of 25 women-owned ideas were selected for the second phase of the program.


International Center for Humanitarian Affairs (ICHA) conducts the first-ever mapathon in Wajir County

The International Center for Humanitarian Affairs (ICHA), through its Data & Preparedness Unit team, successfully conducted its first-ever mapathon in Wajir County from the 16th to 18th September 2022. The two-day mapping event attracted 30 new mappers from the Wajir County government and the local community. The event focused on introducing the mappers to open data and platforms such as OpenStreetMap (OSM) and enhancing their capacity to map buildings footprints and other features of interest using the HOT tasking manager – a tool designed for a collaborative mapping process on OpenStreetMap.

 A mapathon is a coordinated mapping event whereby participants can join physically or remotely to add map data of a particular area through a web-based mapping platform. The idea is that a small contribution from many mappers who know the area will ultimately lead to improved maps and data that organizations can use for decision-making before and after a disaster.

The mapping area focused on two wards within the Wajir West sub-county: Ganyure Wagalla and Hadado Athbohol. By the end of the exercise, the mappers managed to add close to 2,500 building footprints to OSM, which are freely accessible. The project has added close to 43,600 building footprints and 360 km of road. The project intends to expand its mapping efforts to cover the entire county.

ICHA’s Data & Preparedness Unit, with funding from the HOTOSM ESA hub, is currently conducting a Community Participatory Mapping for Disaster Resilience project in Wajir County. This year-long project seeks to increase the resilience of vulnerable communities to climate-related disasters through open map data. The project aims to collect comprehensive and up-to-date datasets on buildings, roads, water points, markets, health facilities, schools, social amenities, etc. These datasets are important because they form part of the capacities and vulnerabilities that are found within the communities.

Open access to such datasets is imperative since it helps humanitarian actors make informed and targeted efforts on where resources are most needed. The project also intends to build the local stakeholders’ capacity to use map data for decision-making and educate them on disaster risk management.


Kenya Red Cross Society senior management, regional & county coordinators and Programmatic staff undergo a Public Policy Executive program training.

Kenya Red Cross Society (KRCS) senior management, regional & county coordinators and Programmatic staff were taken through a Public Policy Executive Program training at Strathmore Business School. The training was funded by USAID under the Enhancing Disaster Risk Reduction and Preparedness for Effective Response Project. The main aim of the training was to capacity build and prepare the KRCS staff for their interactions with key policymakers in light of the transition in the political cycle.

The five-day training involved twenty-four KRCS staff spread through different regional offices. In attendance also was Sarah Nduku, who heads the Policy and Advocacy Unit at the International Center for Humanitarian Affairs (ICHA) and supports Kenya Red Cross’ overall Policy needs. Aisha Mazrui, the Head of Internal Audit, Risk and Compliance, was also in attendance.

The trainees were taken through Public Policy Analysis, Comparative Public Policy and the Sustainable Development Goals, which expounded on the role and relationship between humanitarian work and the 17 SDGs. Mr. Paul Ouma, a life member of KRCS, took the team through Negotiations and its effectiveness in humanitarian work, especially in seeking mutual agreements between warring parties.

The group was also taken through Kenya’s planning process and cycle in a bid to establish the best time to advocate for policy inclusion in the various arms of the government. Dr. Beatrice Njeru also engaged the trainees in Stakeholder analysis, while Dr. Thomas Kibua facilitated several other sessions, including Lobbying and Advocacy for Public Policy. The last session was facilitated by Dr. Elizabeth Muthuma, who expounded on the role of the Private Sector in Public Policy Development. All the sessions involved real-life experiences and discussions on current affairs relating to the mandate of the Kenya Red Cross Society.

Mr. Ahmed Idris, the Deputy Secretary General of the Kenya Red Cross Society and the Executive Director at the International Center for Humanitarian Affairs

Mr. Ahmed Idris, the Deputy Secretary General of the Kenya Red Cross Society and the Executive Director at the International Center for Humanitarian Affairs (ICHA) gave the closing remarks. He stated that the training serves as one of the many that aim at building the capacity of KRCS staff in their contribution toward meaningful public policy formulation.


Advocacy and Humanitarian Diplomacy Training

In its strive to strengthen inclusive policymaking that targets vulnerability,  The International Center for Humanitarian Affairs (ICHA)’s, Policy and Advocacy team leverages on its relationship with different organizations to promote community-centered approaches to humanitarian action.

The team seeks to support dialogue on key humanitarian issues through various platforms for collaboration between the government, donors, the private sector and communities.  

Through this critical role, the policy team organized training in different regions ASAL areas. The purpose of the training was to empower not only the stakeholders directly involved in building the longer-term resilience of the marginalized regions but also the host and refugee communities of the areas.

The team conducted the advocacy and humanitarian diplomacy training in Garissa – Daadab area from 8th to 10th November 2022. The three-day training was designed to support camp leaders, refugees, volunteers and other stakeholders to enhance their skills in influencing and advocating for the protection of the rights of the refugees.

The team had another training in Kalobeyei –  Turkana from 15th  to 18th November 2022, involving refugees, leaders, and other key stakeholders.

They had several interactive sessions with practical ways of identifying partners in advocacy, coming up with key messages, developing strategies and lobbying with important decision-makers. The participants shared various experiences and had practical sessions on influencing and negotiations.

The training is facilitated under the Resilience Health and Rights (RHR) Project. The project seeks to build longer-term resilience in marginalized areas by providing access to services and primary health, including protection from sexual gender-based violence (SGBV) and Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS) and promoting the rights of those affected by displacement. The project seeks to provide sustainable solutions and support to vulnerable displaced and host communities in Wajir, Turkana, Garissa, Marsabit and Mandera counties.